Monday, May 25, 2020

The Influences Of Mass Media On Society - 864 Words

The Influences of Mass Media on Society For the greater majority of the American society, the presence of mass media is a normal part of everyday lives. With the purpose of mass media being to educate, entertain and inform, the excessive violence, self imaging, and lack of full detail on world events, is having negative influences and unhealthy impacts on society. As early as the 1920s, a form of the media has been present in the American society. Although broadcasted content was limited and not as popular as present day, for some homes, it was a source of entertainment and information From 1921 to 1924, there were only 500 licensed media radio stations. By the 1940s (1930-1940), at least 83% of homes possessed a radio(Smith, 2014,paragraph 23, Radio: The Internet of the 1930 s). The negativity of certain broadcasting posed as a concern, even in the early years. As Smith explained, But the new technology also raised anxieties. Observers worried about the propriety and taste of the radio programs that would penetrate the sanctity of the home(Smith, 2014,paragraph 23, Radio: The Internet of the 1930 s). Experts such as L.Rowell Huesmann, has researched and studied the relation between mass media promoted violence and violent tendencies among the The Influences of Mass Media on Society individuals subjected to such violence. Numerous experimental studies, many statistic observational studies, and a few longitudinal studiesShow MoreRelatedMass Media Influence on Society1476 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Media’s Influence on Society Over the last 500 years, the influence of mass media has grown exponentially with the advance of technology.  First there were books, then newspapers, magazines, photography, sound recordings, films, radio, television, the so-called New Media of the Internet, and now social media.   Today, just about everyone depends on information and communication to keep their lives moving through daily activities like workRead MoreThe Mass Media Influence On Society804 Words   |  4 PagesThe mass media greatly influence the behavior and thoughts of citizens and policymakers, and has a great impact on policy agenda. The mass media includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication. There are two kinds of media; print media, which includes newspapers and magazines, and electronic media, which includes television, radio, and the Internet. There are various positives and negatives of the media and its relation to the public and toRead MoreMass Media s Influence On Society962 Words   |  4 PagesOver the years mass media has become more available and favored by society through avenues such as magazines, television, newspapers, print ads, internet, and including social media. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2007), in dividuals spend nearly a total of 3,518 hours of their time on mass media outlets. Mass media has become widely popular among individuals, in particularly young adults.73% of U.S adults aged 18–29, have been reported regularly visit at least one of these outlet, and 42% use moreRead MoreMass Media And Society s Influence On Society Essay1263 Words   |  6 PagesPosition Statement Mass media and society have an influence on each other. One impacts the other just a tad bit more. They have a symbiotic relationship, where one cannot work successfully with each other in many different circumstances. Society has more influence over mass media, because of the idea for supply and demand. If the public does not demand service, then it would not be provided. Media does have a small impact on society, but society holds the key to how information is dispersed. IncludedRead More Mass Media and Its Negative Influence on American Society Essay2119 Words   |  9 Pages Mass Media and Its Influence Negative Influence on American Society nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;â€Å"It is the power that shapes and molds the mind of virtually every citizen, young or old, rich or poor, simple or sophisticated† (Sweet Liberty, 2000, 1). The media is a part of everyday life in America. News and events outside of one’s home or neighborhood are brought to their area via the newspaper, magazines, radio, television, and the internet. As the quote above mentions mass media, and its componentsRead MoreMass Media Influence On People s Ideas About Society936 Words   |  4 PagesJamilah Alfadhli ENG 110-01 November 13, 2015 Mass Media Influence in Shaping People’s Ideas about Society The most important goal for mass media is to make high revenues. To make this goal real and earn that money mass media maker or producer put effective working plans. These effective plans could be in all different kinds of any mass media. There are several effects of made mass media planning before it broadcasting a message to improve it economic. These effects are; effects of advertisingRead MoreThe Effects Of Digital Media On Society s Media1714 Words   |  7 PagesIt is undeniable that the society is experiencing a mediated culture, where mass media have direct effects on our society. Newspapers, magazines, radios, and televisions constantly give out messages to promote products, attitudes, and ideas in an attempt to influence audiences. The effect is further enhanced when digital media, particularly the Internet, enters the competition for the limited supply of audience attention. The saturated mass media industry no longer has the benefit of reach it usedRead MoreThe Impact O f Mass Media On Youth And Society1378 Words   |  6 PagesThe Impact of Mass Media on the Youth and Society Nowadays, the issue of mass media has caused much debate in the modern society, as well as mass media is becoming more important as a component that negatively affects the behavior of young people. There are many other factors, such as micro-environment, economic instability, the decline of moral values affecting children and young people and encourage them to commit unlawful acts. However, unlimited access to the Internet, mobile phone use in theRead MoreMass Media And Its Impact On Society1719 Words   |  7 PagesIn today’s world society believes that mass media plays a key role in shaping and communicating our culture. Mass Media is defined as a technological advancement of communication. People receive information about the world through mass media and it helps shape people’s beliefs, values, perception, and behavior. Mass media is a controversial topic among sociologists, many of them have differentiating opinions of how mass media is influencing people daily liv es today. Through this research analysisRead MoreMass Media Usage813 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction to Media Industries Media Visualization Essay Media Usage Mass media has become a powerful tool in shaping our culture, and is largely reflective of our society today. According to our text book and class lecture notes, mass media can be loosely defined as the technological vehicles through which mass communication takes place, along with the industries which control them. Over the years, mass media, has had a profound effect on American society, on its culture, and on the individuals

Friday, May 15, 2020

Essay on History of Philosophy - 1225 Words

Until now, I have simply accepted education as it has been presented me, blind to fact that there was any kind of well developed philosophy behind it. After being introduced to the main educational philosophies, perennialism, essentialism, progressivism and social resconstructionism, I have had the opportunity to decide for myself which ones I believe in and why. I must agree with Thomas Locke that we are born into this world a blank slate. Living in such an affluent society, education in America is provided and required of all citizens. Education shapes us; we grow through it and with it as changing circumstances continue to alter the methods by how we are taught and why. It is through our education however, that we learn and grow as†¦show more content†¦I personally believe that while learning concepts and ideas that will always be prevalent regardless of progressing time and that thinking analytically is crucial to personal growth and education, that this is not a practic al approach and certainly not one that every student would benefit from it. Somewhat similar to perennialism, essentialism also focuses on absolutes, believing in a certain knowledge standard, teaching students the fundamentals of math, science, literature, history and language, basically the layout of our days in middle school. Often referred to, as â€Å"back to the basics† essentialism is a dominant approach to American education. Although I disagree with some of the more recent campaigns that have branched from it, such as No Child Left Behind, I do believe that its highly effective and gives students the opportunity to balance their education among the essential â€Å"basics† as well as draw connections between them. It was also discussed that essentialism produces the 2 by 4 students, suggesting a basic education. I believe that learning basics will always be important, I partly believe this because it is how I have been educated and I consider myself to be a w ell-rounded human being with a basic knowledge of the core topics because of it. However, there are some core topics I believe I walked away from with a better understanding of then others and I don’t believe that to be because I wasShow MoreRelatedhistory of philosophy5031 Words   |  21 Pagesï » ¿History of philosophy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see  History of Philosophy (disambiguation). This article  may require  copy editing  for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling.You can assist by  editing it.  (April 2013) Philosophy Philosophers Aestheticians Epistemologists Ethicists Logicians Metaphysicians Social and political philosophers Traditions Analytic Continental Eastern Islamic Platonic Scholastic Periods Ancient Medieval Modern Read MoreHistory And Philosophy Of Ancient Philosophy1480 Words   |  6 PagesKateryna Stoianova History of Ancient Philosophy Fall 2016 Final Exam – Sec. A (10:00) Question #1 A principle is a fundamental source or basis of something. A principle cannot be proven, because to prove something we have to go back to the basics and principle is basis of everything. Although, what most philosophers seem to be doing to prove the validity of their theories is by showing that if we accept something else as a principle it would make no sense. The Pre-Socratic philosophersRead MoreHistory of Philosophy1337 Words   |  6 Pagesthe readings reoccurring themes, such as religion, wisdom, knowledge, reality and life occur and each philosopher offering their own opinions. Given these works, a timeline of viewpoints can be developed and can give a decent view of the shape of philosophy over time, as well as offering insight to how the time period and location may have shaped the views of philosophers. One of the most surprising themes many of the philosophers had in common was religion. Each viewed it in their own unique wayRead MoreThe Christian Philosophy Of History1912 Words   |  8 PagesThe Christian philosophy of history comes from the reading of biblical scripture rather than speculation or a scientific study of the past. The Bible is one text that is common for all Christians despite all the different denominations. Beginning with Augustine, many people have written their own individual versions of a Christian view of history, however they all start with the Bible. The Bible is not a philosophy of history. However, it helps to analyse the understanding of history that lies behindRead MoreHistory And Philosophy Of Open Source818 Words   |  4 PagesThe History and Philosophy of Open Source The open source movement was born in 1984, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab when Richard M. Stallman quit his position at the university to begin the GNU Project. Having grown tired of seeing his colleagues being hired off by corporations and signing nondisclosure agreements for their work, he set off to create a completely free, open operating system. Though he specialized in the field, building such a system from the ground up is nearly impossibleRead MoreHistory, Philosophy And Miscellaneous Works881 Words   |  4 PagesLiterature Review Libraries have a long history towards the ancient world as places used to keep important records such as clay tablets, transcripts and many texts. Many records were destroyed in the course of wars or purposely by some rulers with the changes in government. As a result, writing of literature as well as record keeping was encouraged where classification schemes were initiated to preserve those records of all times. The first formal classification was categorizing the writings intoRead MoreEssay about Objectivity In History2118 Words   |  9 PagesObjectivity in History First exposure to history, whether it be at home or at school, will almost certainly be at an age when the child can do no other than expect to be told the truth. So, from the very beginning, whether we find history dull or exciting, easy or hard, we do at least assume that we are being given an accurate account of the past. Our subsequent growing up can be seen as a process of progressively shedding the literal beliefs of early life, from Father Christmas and EasterRead MoreHistory, Mission And Philosophy Of The Organization1052 Words   |  5 PagesHistory, Mission and Philosophy of the Organization or Board of Directors: Founded in 1986, the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, set its goals to advance the science and education of psychiatric or mental health nursing. It was also established to unify this specialty. Currently there are 40 states or local chapters. This organization promotes the health, wellness and recovery of mental illnesses. Their reason for being developed is the expressed in seven core values of empowermentRead MoreHistory, Mission And Philosophy Of The Organization1296 Words   |  6 PagesHistory, Mission and Philosophy of the Organization or Board of Directors: The Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses was established in 2006, but was not always known as APHON. Before the title APHON, it used to be just APON because hematology was not included when it was first founded in 1974. APON was established in 1974 when Oncology nurses decided that they needed to have their own association to discuses their research and outcomes with other Oncology nurses fro m around the UnitedRead MoreEssay on History and Philosophy of Science1695 Words   |  7 PagesHistory and Philosophy of Science The world of science, as we know it today, is a difficult subject to grasp. So many new ideas are present and these new ideas are not interchangeable. Some parts do work together although as a whole they don’t fully coincide with each other. The three basic ideas that science is now based upon come from Newton, Einstein, and Hawking. I call these ideas/theories â€Å"new† based on what I classify the state of the scientific community of today. After looking at what

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cause And Effect Of Car Accidents - 936 Words

The world would be a much better place if there were fewer car accidents. Car accidents happen daily and regularly these days. They leave pains behind for the victims’ families. Many people think that they will never get involved in car accidents. They don’t wear their seat belts, they drive after drinking, and they use their cell phones while driving. They do all these things without even giving a second thought, yet all these things are preventable. No one knows what will happen to them in the future except for God; thus, they should always stay alarmed. People don’t realize that doing those minor things cause them severe pains or even deaths. There are more than six million car accidents each year in the United States. A person dies in a car accident every twelve minutes and each year car crashes kill 40,000 people. Someone is injured by a car accident every fourteen seconds and about two million of the people who are injured in car accidents suffer permanent injuries. Car accidents are the leading cause of death for the people between two and thirty-four years old. Car crashes cost each American more than $1,000 a year; $164. 2 billion is the total cost each year across the U.S. (http://www.edgarsnyder.com/car-accident/statistics.html). As you can see, preserving car accidents not only saves the lives of the people, but also saves the money for their countries. This makes everyone to be involved in car accidents happen in their countries. SoShow MoreRelatedGoogle Glass Essay643 Words   |  3 Pagesglasses are turning everybody’s heads and having them wondering, are these glasses safe, what are the pros and the cons and what is next for Google. Although this new product may seem great and amazing and futuristic it can have some serious side effects and repercussions. One repercussion of this new device could be that is may be an invasion of people’s privacy. The use of this technology could encourage the action of people who like to capture images without permission, it would get much moreRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?973 Words   |  4 Pageshappens when the brain’s production of endocannabinoid neurotransmitters slows or stops because it has adapted to large amounts of marijuana (â€Å"Addictive†). Marijuana disorder becomes an addiction when the user is unable to stop using even if the effects of marijuana interfere with many aspects of their life (â€Å"Addictive†). In 2014, it was estimated that about 4.176 million people in the US, roughly 1% of the total population, abused or were dependent on marijuana, but it is hard to estimate the numberRead MoreBan on the Usage of Cell P hone while Driving808 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿Cell phone ban while driving Many states in America according to their research have found out that use of cell phones in cars have contributed to several accidents as well as traffic violations and are now legislating rules and regulations on cell phone usage so as to create safer driving environment in the states hence reducing the number of accidents each and every day caused by use of cell phones while driving. Jennifer Clark (2012 ) indicates that teenage drivers were banned from any cellRead MoreEighteen is too Dangerous886 Words   |  4 PagesHas anyone been harmed from underage drinking that you may know of, whether it’s from over dosing or a severe car accident? The topic of lowering the drinking age to eighteen in the United States is very debatable subject because many people have a difficult time deciding which side to support. Many of the negative issues for the low drinking age would have of an effect on the future, which is why the reform should not be put into action. Reasons include health issues, irresponsibility, and deathsRead MoreEssay Accidents Caused by Texting and Driving 706 Words   |  3 Pageshits an oncoming car. In the last seven years, the number of teens texting while driving has risen . Researchers at Cohen Childrens Medical Center New Hyde Park estimated 3,000 annual teen deaths nationwide from texting and 300,000 injuries (Ricks). This is more than t he number of teens who drink and drive. In comparison, 2,700 teens die from drinking and driving. Because of texting and driving, there has been an increase car crashes, teen injuries and teen deaths. First, car crashes have increaseRead MoreDriving Is A Car Accident762 Words   |  4 Pagesneed or want. We do not think about being in a car accident every time we get in our vehicles to go somewhere. The first time I was in a car accident changed my life drastically. I was heading to work like every morning, and I had to swerve from hitting a van. I then rolled my two door cavalier six times down a hill and landed upside down in a ditch. The experience of this accident has caused me to have a significant amount of medical bills, a totaled car, a severe amount of emotional trauma, alongRead MoreUse of Cellphones While Driving Should be Banned661 Words   |  3 Pagestime a driver picks up the mobile phone to use in whichever form, the lives of those both in the car and outside the car are edged closer to danger than before. Thesis To prevent car accidents, people should stop texting while driving. The use of the cell phones while driving has been noted to be a cause of several accidents within many states and have been found responsible for more accidents that those caused by drunk-driving in some states. Due to this, many states have now legislated severalRead MoreDifferent Types Of Research Methods1106 Words   |  5 Pagesfour types are causal comparative, descriptive, experimental, and correlational researches. Causal comparative researches look for the cause of some type of effect. Descriptive researches look for a common characteristic within a similar population and determine how various characteristics affect behavior or achievement. Experimental research seeks for the effect of certain factors, also to find the independent variable and dependent variable of the experiment. Correlational research seeks for theRead MoreThe Technology Of Autonomous Car994 Words   |  4 PagesGoogle’s autonomous car had clocked up 1 million miles on public roads, and the resear cher planned to do more road test in the future in order to expedite launch the Google’s car. (Protalinski, 2015) The technology of autonomous car is mature enough to use. In addition, the law for autonomous car has been already passed in serval states including Florida, Nevada, and Michigan. (Boeglin, 2015) It seems to be obviously that autonomous are coming into and bringing profound effect in our daily life.Read MoreThe Causes of Road Accidents in Malaysia1692 Words   |  7 PagesThe Causes Of Road Accidents In Malaysia Time to time, half a million of Malaysians died because of road accidents and the highest cases of road accidents are caused by the drivers’ behaviour, equipment failure and the road conditions and infrastructure. Because of the road accidents many people have lose their family member or close friend. Besides, the road accidents also may effected to government when they have to repair for the broken infrastructure that caused by the accident like lamp

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Malaria Incidence

Question: Discuss about the Malaria Incidence. Answer: According to World Health Organization report on December, 2016 malaria is one of the life-threatening diseases that are caused by parasites transmitted through bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes through people (Cullen 2016). In the year 2015, around 91 countries had malaria transmission (Who 2014). Between the years 2010 to 2015, the global malaria incidence among the population with new cases rate fell by 21% and the mortality rates also fell by 29% among the populations at risk among the age groups and 35% among the children below the age of five (Barber et al. 2017). Malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum most prevalent in African continent with maximum number of malaria-related death and P. vivax being dominant in most countries causing malaria in humans. The symptoms include acute febrile illness, fever, chills, headache and vomiting appearing seven days after the mosquito bite. According to WHO report, half of the worlds population was at malaria risk with major mortalit y rates in sub-Saharan Africa (Bhatt et al. 2015). There are some population groups who are at high risk for contracting malaria like children below the age of five, patients with AIDS/HIV, pregnant women, non-immune migrants, travellers and mobile populations. During the year 2015, there were 212 million malaria cases and 429,000 malaria-related deaths (Mnard et al. 2016). Vector control intervention is the best way to prevent and control the malaria transmission with insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying that are effective in many circumstances. The early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces the burden of disease and mortality rates. This shows that malaria is a public health concern and therefore, the following essay involves the control and eradication or elimination of malaria to ensure evidence-based public health practice. According to WHO, the malaria transmission majorly occurs in five regions. On a global basis, approximately 3.2 billion in 95 countries are at risk for malaria infection and developing the disease being 1.2 billion people (Agarwal et al. 2015). According to World Malaria Report 2015, globally there were 214 million malaria cases and 438,000 malaria deaths which indicate that there was a decrease in the malaria cases and deaths with 37% and 60%, respectively since 2000. The burden of the disease was heaviest in the African Region, where there were around 90% malarial cases and malaria related deaths in children below the age of five accounting for more than two thirds of deaths worldwide (Griffin, Ferguson and Ghani 2014). The prevalence of malaria worldwide shows that it majorly contributes to the burden of disease and has a major impact on the health of the people. Malaria takes a heavy toll of human life and imposes substantial costs to the government, being the burden of disease. It is one of the biggest health problems that grossly affect the health, morbidity and mortality rates and economy of the developing countries. According to Global Malaria Action Plan 2014, malaria is one of the most severe health concerns among the public being the leading cause of death in the developing countries (Hemingway et al. 2016). It is also imposing economic burden that includes maintenance and supply of staffs for health facilities, drugs purchase and supplies and public health interventions in order to prevent and control malaria. The direct costs like treatment and premature death pose serious implications on the economic growth in terms of growth and productivity. According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the people who have no or little immunity against malaria are the most vulnerable groups where pregnant women and young children are then most affected groups (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). Apart from health and economic burden, the policy makers are aggressively trying to control malaria because of its high morbidity and mortality rates reaching at an alarming stage. Despite of tremendous progress made in order to prevent and control malaria transmission, it is still an acute public health issue. It contributes to anaemic condition in children below the age of five and pregnant women resulting in low birth weight of the newborns. The existing strategies are trying to reach the people and communities who are at risk for malaria with core interventions to save lives suffered with malaria. According to WHO, new strategies are being adopted to prevent and control malaria. The most promising approach is the integrated vector management (IVM) that reinforces and links the public health and environment providing optimum benefits to both the elements (Chanda et al. 2017). The IVM strategies provide greatest control over the disease in an effective way that minimizes the negative impacts on the environment and the adverse effects on the public health. The WHO Global Strategic Framework defines the IVM strategy as an effective multi-disease control that stresses on understanding of ecology of the local vector and local patterns in transmission of disease and finally choosing of the appropriate vector control tools for the vector control. It also encompasses environmental management strategies that aim to eliminate or reduce the vector breeding grounds through operation of water development projects through improved design. The biological controls like larvivorous fish or bact erial larvicides that targets and kills the larvae vector without causing any harm on the environment due to chemical use (World Health Organization 2014). This framework also comprises of improved prevention or personal protection strategies that combine the environmental tools with chemical tools like insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) with accessible and affordable diagnosis and treatment of malaria. In order to control malaria, WHO has provided the IVM approach that is effective in controlling the malarial vector and in linking the public health and environment. It is a dynamic method that is still evolving and encourages controlling the vector via a single method. It is a cost-effective method that significantly co-benefits the local economies and linking health with better economic outcomes. IVM framework for vector control is highly dependent on local malarial vector behaviour, environmental conditions and patterns of disease transmission. The better designing of irrigation schemes, dams that allow alterations and flow and level of water with better flushing of reservoirs that would help to reduce the vector habitats. The irrigation schemes permit intermittent field irrigation and alternation between non-irrigated and irrigated crops proves successful in controlling the Anopheles mosquitoes in many regions that grows rice like India, China and parts of Asia. It disrupts the b reeding cycles of the vectors and environmental modification helps to control the malarial vector (Tesfazghi et al. 2015). The environmental manipulation like shade, drainage patterns and time-limited local vegetation changes proves an effective way to reduce the malarial vector habitats. The formation of shades over the breeding habitats of vectors which prefers sunlight can help to reduce the propagation of the vector. Conversely, the malarial vectors that thrive in shades, removal of weeds, overgrowth would significantly reduce the potential of breeding and vector abundance (Benelli and Mehlhorn 2016). The human settlement away from the breeding areas of malaria can reduce transmission as the vectors do not travel much away from their breeding zones. The better control and management of man-made sites where mosquitoes reproduce like bore holes and water wells helps in reducing the breeding that is close to the human settlements (Killeen et al. 2016). Apart from environmental malarial management, biological controls also kill the larvae or the mosquitoes in a targeted manner. Among the controls, the application and maintenance of stocks of biolarvicides like Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis that feed on the mosquito larvae helsp to control the malarial vector (Kumar et al. 2014). The Neem oil is also a successful biolarvicide that is extracted from the seeds in controlling the malarial vector. Along with these controls, chemical tools are also important in the areas of dense vector densities and intense disease transmission that have an impact on the diseas e incidence. The methods include space spraying; indoor residual spraying reduces the transmission of the disease by interrupting or shortening the adult vector lifespan as proposed by The Health and Environment Linkages Initiative (HELI). It also helps to keep the population of the vectors down through the application of chemicals over the breeding places and use of ITNs like covering beds, protective nets impregnated with insecticides, water container and living quarters. The role of public in malaria control fails due to market and information failure, externalities, monopoly that implies a role for public action. However, there is a need for community participation where the communities in collaboration with public should work towards the control of malaria by creating awareness through programs and campaigns (Mnzava et al. 2014). In the recent years, early diagnosis and prompt treatment is the key to control malaria and radical treatment necessary for preventing the malarial transmission. The anti-malarial drug like chloroquine is effective for uncomplicated malaria. The Fever Treatment Depots (FTDs) and Drug Distribution Centres (DDCs) established in rural areas serves to provide the anti-malarial drugs to the public and community. There are strategies and policies for controlling malaria that are recommended by WHO which focus on malaria control and prevention. The strategic malaria control emphasizes on two domains; prevention and management. They work to stop the transmission of parasite from the vector to humans and in the development and severity of the disease (Peters 2013). The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) along with WHO recommended policy development to control and eliminate malaria through identification of the priority areas and challenges for the achievement of global malaria goals. The vaccine development is also an effective and safe way to control malaria. However, the complexity of the parasites nature with understanding of the critical processes like disease pathogenesis and host immune protection is difficult and so the vaccine development is hampered. Moreover, currently there is no licensed vaccine against malaria or any vaccine for parasitic disease. The anti-malarial drugs development resulted in controlling and reducing the endemic malaria worldwide. However, the emergence of drug resistance in parasites poses a critical priority in the agenda of malarial research. The improved and new diagnostics are effective for malarial control. The labour intensive methods like analyzing blood smears with better diagnostic tools and highl y trained technicians pose challenges in the diagnostics in terms of drug resistance (WHO, M.P.A.C 2016). According to Malaria Foundation International, the malaria control cannot programs and interventions cannot be achieved until there is decentralization, capacity building through community participation in public health practice. By adopting evolutionary operation where there is constant adaptation and tuning of management approaches and harnessing of local knowledge in the key to control and prevent malaria (Kobayashi et al. 2015). For the elimination or eradication of malaria, the anti-malarial drug and vaccine development, surveillance and diagnostics are some of the novel malarial tools that accelerate eradication. The WHOs Malaria Policy Advisory Committee adopted the goal for eliminating the P. falciparum in the subregions by 2030. It has developed the malaria elimination plans that help to eliminate or eradicate the malaria from the developing countries. Effective surveillance is important for tracking the disease and in developing the programmatic responses. High surveillance systems help to assess the disease trends and distribution in the developing countries that are greatly affected by malaria. It is required at every point in the malaria elimination path by empowering effective programs. The advocating for investment, allocation of resources to the populations at risk, assessment of the interventions, impact of funding and evaluation of programs for the efficient elimination of malaria (World Health Organization 2014). The malarial elimination is defined as the local transmission interruption in a geographical area. The elimination program depends on the health system of a particular country with level of investment in the control and other factors like environmental, social, biological determinants, political, demographic and economic status of a particular country. The elimination approach through surveillance ensures that every malaria infection is detected, treated and registered in national malaria registry. The effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria along with anti-malarial medicines helps to prevent and control disease transmission in the community. In May 2015, The WHO Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030 adopted by the World Health Assembly provides a technical framework for the endemic malaria that is intended to support and guide the control and elimination of malaria (Ramsay, Olliaro and Reeder 2016). The elimination of malaria is interruption of transmission at local level that is reduction of the incidence to zero in indigenous cases of a specific malaria parasite in a particular geographical area. By enhancing and optimising the prevention and treatment of malaria measures and by strengthening the surveillance system, the high burden countries can eliminate malaria. In some developing countries, there is high prevalence of malaria among the mobile populations and travellers who are beyond the reach of the international borders. The infections are imported by these migrants and visitors which also required strict surveillance for the timely diagnosis and treatment (Griffin et al. 2016). The digital epidemiology modelling called geospatial mapping and reporting of malarial cases through mobile phones and tracking of patient status helps in the surveillance of malaria for effective elimination. The identification of the threats to the control and elimination of malaria serves for the new areas for action plan. The drug development that involves transmission blocking vaccine is an innovative method that might help in the malaria elimination post 2025. A transparent, credible and responsive policy for malaria elimination also serves to provide technical input and strategic advice for malaria elimination (Brady et al. 2015). There are some proposed innovative technologies like development of new drugs that targets the molecular markers of resistance like artemisinin resistance, single dose drug like Tafenoquine, OZ439 and OZ Ferroquine may be helpful in the path to malaria elimination in the future by 2030. The vector control through indoor residual spraying of Chlorfenapyr, pyrethroid long lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) and crop protection are some novel vector control methods (Tanner et al. 2015). The addition of new active ingredients from the agrochemicals with spatial repellents, insecticidal paints and toxic barrier screens and sugar baits can serve as vector control vaccines in the elimination of malaria. The diagnostic tools like hyper-sensitive diagnostic test (IDT) for the identification of asymptomatic carriers along with non-invasive diagnostic methods for the screening of mass population might aid in eradication of malaria worldwide (Britton, Cheng and McCarthy 2016). Behavioural res istance is less compared as physiological resistance where the mosquito contact the insecticide, however not killed and it is a challenge for the government to control and eliminate malaria. In instances where behavioural resistance is detected, there is a need to target the bionomic vulnerabilities that may exist during mating, larval stages, sugar feeding or any other aspect in the vectors lie cycle can drive toward elimination. For the elimination of malaria, the most important challenge is to link the public and private sector activity. On one hand, the private delivery of drugs and ITNs provides an opportunity to extend coverage and primarily focus on the needs of the public sector and at the same time, there are many deficiencies in the private sector like quality and outreaching of the resources through networks that must be recognized. The funding and delivery of resources through public sector channels would help to eliminate malaria through binding of public and private sectors (Liu et al. 2013). Malaria is one of the life-threatening disease that has taken a toll over the human life and is high prevalent in many countries. It has contributed to the burden of disease and has an impact on the human life. There are many existing strategies like vector control management, biological controls in which larvivorous fish or bacterial larvicides target the larvae of the vector, environmental manipulation and human settlement away from breeding areas are the strategies adopted by WHO. For the eradication of malaria, vaccines, anti-malarial drugs and many innovative technologies can help in the near future. In addition, the collaboration of government with public and private sector ca n help to control and eradicate malaria from the countries. References Agarwal, K., Alonso, P., Chico, R.M., Coleman, J., Dellicour, S., Hill, J., Majeres-Lugand, M., Mangiaterra, V., Menendez, C., Mitchell, K. and Roman, E., 2015. Global Call to Action to scale-up coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: seminar report.Malaria journal,14(1), p.206. Barber, B.E., Rajahram, G.S., Grigg, M.J., William, T. and Anstey, N.M., 2017. World Malaria Report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.Malaria Journal,16(1), p.135. Benelli, G. and Mehlhorn, H., 2016. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.Parasitology research,115(5), pp.1747-1754. Bhatt, S., Weiss, D.J., Cameron, E., Bisanzio, D., Mappin, B., Dalrymple, U., Battle, K.E., Moyes, C.L., Henry, A., Eckhoff, P.A. and Wenger, E.A., 2015. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015.Nature,526(7572), pp.207-211. Brady, O.J., Godfray, H.C.J., Tatem, A.J., Gething, P.W., Cohen, J.M., McKenzie, F.E., Perkins, T.A., Reiner, R.C., Tusting, L.S., Scott, T.W. and Lindsay, S.W., 2015. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission.International health,7(2), pp.121-129. Britton, S., Cheng, Q. and McCarthy, J.S., 2016. Novel molecular diagnostic tools for malaria elimination: a review of options from the point of view of high-throughput and applicability in resource limited settings.Malaria journal,15(1), p.88. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013.CDC Health Information for International Travel 2014: The Yellow Book. Oxford University Press. Chanda, E., Ameneshewa, B., Bagayoko, M., Govere, J.M. and Macdonald, M.B., 2017. Harnessing Integrated Vector Management for Enhanced Disease Prevention.Trends in Parasitology,33(1), pp.30-41. Cullen, K.A., 2016. Malaria surveillanceUnited States, 2013.MMWR. Surveillance Summaries,65. Griffin, J.T., Bhatt, S., Sinka, M.E., Gething, P.W., Lynch, M., Patouillard, E., Shutes, E., Newman, R.D., Alonso, P., Cibulskis, R.E. and Ghani, A.C., 2016. Potential for reduction of burden and local elimination of malaria by reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission: a mathematical modelling study.The Lancet Infectious Diseases,16(4), pp.465-472. Griffin, J.T., Ferguson, N.M. and Ghani, A.C., 2014. Estimates of the changing age-burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria disease in sub-Saharan Africa.Nature communications,5. Hemingway, J., Ranson, H., Magill, A., Kolaczinski, J., Fornadel, C., Gimnig, J., Coetzee, M., Simard, F., Roch, D.K., Hinzoumbe, C.K. and Pickett, J., 2016. Averting a malaria disaster: will insecticide resistance derail malaria control?.The Lancet,387(10029), pp.1785-1788. Killeen, G., Marshall, J.M., Kiware, S.S., South, A.B., Tusting, L.S., Chaki, P.P. and Govella, N.J., 2016. Measuring, manipulating and exploiting behaviours of adult mosquitoes to optimize malaria vector control impact.BMJ Global Health. Kobayashi, T., Gamboa, D., Ndiaye, D., Cui, L., Sutton, P.L. and Vinetz, J.M., 2015. Malaria diagnosis across the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research: platforms, performance, and standardization.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene,93(3 Suppl), pp.99-109. Kumar, P.M., Murugan, K., Kovendan, K., Subramaniam, J., Panneerselvam, C. and Amerasan, D., 2014. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activity of Orthosiphon thymiflorus and Spinosad for the Control of Malarial Vector, Anopheles Stephensi.Advances in Biotechnology and Patenting, p.259. Liu, J., Modrek, S., Gosling, R.D. and Feachem, R.G., 2013. Malaria eradication: is it possible? Is it worth it? Should we do it?.The Lancet Global Health,1(1), pp.e2-e3. Mnard, D., Khim, N., Beghain, J., Adegnika, A.A., Shafiul-Alam, M., Amodu, O., Rahim-Awab, G., Barnadas, C., Berry, A., Boum, Y. and Bustos, M.D., 2016. A worldwide map of Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller polymorphisms.New England Journal of Medicine,374(25), pp.2453-2464. Mnzava, A.P., Macdonald, M.B., Knox, T.B., Temu, E.A. and Shiff, C.J., 2014. Malaria vector control at crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination.Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, p.tru101. Peters, W. ed., 2013.Antimalarial Drugs I: Biological Background, Experimental Methods, and Drug Resistance(Vol. 68). Springer. Ramsay, A., Olliaro, P. and Reeder, J.C., 2016. The need for operational research and capacity-building in support of the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 20162030.Malaria journal,15(1), p.235. Tanner, M., Greenwood, B., Whitty, C.J., Ansah, E.K., Price, R.N., Dondorp, A.M., von Seidlein, L., Baird, J.K., Beeson, J.G., Fowkes, F.J. and Hemingway, J., 2015. Malaria eradication and elimination: views on how to translate a vision into reality.BMC medicine,13(1), p.167. Tesfazghi, K., Hill, J., Jones, C., Ranson, H. and Worrall, E., 2015. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria.Health policy and planning, p.czv055. WHO, M.P.A.C., 2016. Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of eighth biannual meeting (September 2015).Malaria journal,15(1), p.117. Who., 2014.World malaria report 2013. World Health Organization. World Health Organization, 2014. From malaria control to malaria elimination: a manual for elimination scenario planning. World Health Organization, 2014.Antimicrobial resistance: 2014 global report on surveillance. World Health Organization.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Guess Jeans E-Commerce Essays - Fashion, Guess, Paul Marciano

Guess Jeans E-Commerce Guess ?, Inc. designs, markets, and distributes clothing apparel and accessories for men and women. It was created by three brothers, known as the Marciano brothers who grew up in Southern France. Maurice Marciano oversees the companys design direction, Paul Marciano is the Co-Chairman and Co-chief officer, and Armand Marciano is the Senior Executive Vice President . They were inspired by the American western tradition to begin the clothing designs of Guess ?. After Bloomingdales agreed to purchase two dozen of their jeans as a favor they were sold out with in hours. Thats when, in 1981, the official Guess ? label was born, and would become one of the most recognized brand names. Guess ? uses historical trends within the market to develop a sales plan for designs and as a guide to the number of sales per garmet. With the sales plan in mind they seek out the best quality product at the best possible price. Once the materials are gathered the cost of the item is determined. Including manufacturing labor, fabric, trims, and various other details included in the production of the clothing a rough cost is agreed upon. After the cost is found Guess ? then determines on a style merchandising cost, which is based on raising or lowering prices to maximize sales and profits. As of today Guess ? has product licenses all over the world. Also it has distributors in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Guess ? can be found in many department, retail, specialty, and factory stores and as of January 1995 online. Guesss ? online store is created in Los Angeles, were its E-Commerce department is located. Their responsibility is to create texts, graphics, researches of new technologies, and track online sales. The Guess?.Com website is updated every two to three months so the most accurate information is always available to consumers. On the Guess ? website they support electronic security clearly stated at the bottom of the page. They have security measures set up to protect the consumer from any loss or misuse of information under their control. Credit card information and sign-in passwords are always stored in an unreadable, encrypted format. Also, the site is protected by a multi-layer firewall based security system. So any consumer information personal or not is well protected. Guess ? also offers the option if an item is bought online to return it to any one of their retail stores. If you decide to ship it back to the company they will pay shipping on returned packages. You can even e-mail Guess ? at their e-commerce returns address if you have any further questions or problems, its guaranteed theyll get back to you with in twenty-four hours after receiving it. At the end of each season an analysis is performed to measure the success of Guesss ? online store. Afterwards its then evaluated and improvements are made for future developments. This is not only done for Guesss web site, but for other types of media buys they advertise in for example magazines, billboards, and bus sides. This ensures that all information is utilized for use at a later date to increase cash flow. Guess ? has 43.5 million shares of common stock as of November 6, 2000. Prices ranging from $21.06 to $27.31 per share For the nine months that ended September 30, 2000 Guesss ? revenues rose 44 percent to $582.9 million dollars. Their net income has increased by 1 percent to $33.2 million dollars in the nine months. As businesses usually break even or lose money from their online stores Guess ? has managed to increase their earnings. In the future Guess ? will most likely be as successful as it was for the last twenty years if not more. With new retail stores opening quiet frequently and an online store now available its making it more convenient for the consumer to purchase Guess ?. The more secure the purchasers of Guess ? feel the greater the likelihood their online store will bring in more business as long as their quality assurance remains the same. Overall businesses in ten years that have online stores will probably be the ones that bring

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on Galileo

Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was born at Pisa on the 18th of February in 1564. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family and had gained some distinction as a musician and a mathematician. At an early age, Galileo manifested his ability to learn both mathematical and mechanical types of things, but his parents, wishing to turn him aside from studies which promised no substantial return, steered him toward some sort of medical profession. But this had no effect on Galileo. During his youth he was allowed to follow the path that he wished to. Although in the popular mind Galileo is remembered chiefly as an astronomer, however, the science of mechanics and dynamics pretty much owe their existence to his findings. Before he was twenty, observation of the oscillations of a swinging lamp in the cathedral of Pisa led him to the discovery of the isochronism of the pendulum, which theory he utilized fifty years later in the construction of an astronomical clock. In 1588, an essay on the center of gravity in solids obtained for him the title of the Archimedes of his time, and secured him a teaching spot in the University of Pisa. During the years immediately following, taking advantage of the celebrated leaning tower, he laid the foundation experimentally of the theory of falling bodies and demonstrated the falsity of the peripatetic maxim, which is that an objects rate of descent is proportional to its weight. When he challenged this it made all of the followers of Aristotle extremely angry, they would not except the fact that their leader could have been wrong. Galileo, in result of this and other troubles, found it prudent to quit Pisa and move to Florence, the original home of his family. In Florence he was nominated by the Venetian Senate in 1592 to the chair of mathematics in the University of Padua, which he occupied for eighteen years, with ever-increasing fame. After that he was ap... Free Essays on Galileo Free Essays on Galileo The Life and Times of Galileo Galileio Galileo Galilei was born at Pisa on the 18th of February in 1564. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family and had gained some distinction as a musician and a mathematician. At an early age, Galileo manifested his ability to learn both mathematical and mechanical types of things, but his parents, wishing to turn him aside from studies, which promised no substantial return, steered him toward some sort of medical profession. But this had no effect on Galileo. During his youth he was allowed to follow the path that he wished to. Although in the popular mind Galileo is remembered chiefly as an astronomer, however, the science of mechanics and dynamics pretty much owe their existence to his findings. Before he was twenty, observation of the oscillations of a swinging lamp in the cathedral of Pisa led him to the discovery of the isochronisms of the pendulum, which theory he utilized fifty years later in the construction of an astronomical clock. In 1588, an essay on the center of gravity in solids obtained for him the title of the Archimedes of his time, and secured him a teaching spot in the University of Pisa. During the years immediately following, taking advantage of the celebrated leaning tower, he laid the foundation experimentally of the theory of falling bodies and demonstrated the falsity of the peripatetic maxim, which is that an objects rate of descent is proportional to its weight. When he challenged this it made all of the followers of Aristotle extremely angry, they would not accept the fact that their leader could have been wrong. Galileo, in result of this and other troubles, found it prudent to quit Pisa and move to Florence, the original home of his family. In Florence the Venetian Senate nominated him in 1592 to the chair of mathematics in the University of Padua, which he occupied for eighteen years, with ever-increasing fame. After that he was appointed philoso... Free Essays on Galileo Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was born at Pisa on the 18th of February in 1564. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family and had gained some distinction as a musician and a mathematician. At an early age, Galileo manifested his ability to learn both mathematical and mechanical types of things, but his parents, wishing to turn him aside from studies which promised no substantial return, steered him toward some sort of medical profession. But this had no effect on Galileo. During his youth he was allowed to follow the path that he wished to. Although in the popular mind Galileo is remembered chiefly as an astronomer, however, the science of mechanics and dynamics pretty much owe their existence to his findings. Before he was twenty, observation of the oscillations of a swinging lamp in the cathedral of Pisa led him to the discovery of the isochronism of the pendulum, which theory he utilized fifty years later in the construction of an astronomical clock. In 1588, an essay on the center of gravity in solids obtained for him the title of the Archimedes of his time, and secured him a teaching spot in the University of Pisa. During the years immediately following, taking advantage of the celebrated leaning tower, he laid the foundation experimentally of the theory of falling bodies and demonstrated the falsity of the peripatetic maxim, which is that an objects rate of descent is proportional to its weight. When he challenged this it made all of the followers of Aristotle extremely angry, they would not except the fact that their leader could have been wrong. Galileo, in result of this and other troubles, found it prudent to quit Pisa and move to Florence, the original home of his family. In Florence he was nominated by the Venetian Senate in 1592 to the chair of mathematics in the University of Padua, which he occupied for eighteen years, with ever-increasing fame. After that he was ap...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Financial Mnangement (Lindt and Sprungli. Zetar plc companies) Term Paper

Financial Mnangement (Lindt and Sprungli. Zetar plc companies) - Term Paper Example The overview is followed by a comparison of the financial performance of both the company. The financial performance of the company is analyzed by using different measures such as the ratio analysis technique and the comparison of the revenues and the profits of both the organizations. The value of Zetar plc is calculated so as to assess whether Zetar plc can be considered for acquisition purposes by Lindt and Sprungli. This valuation is performed using different methods such as the P/E ratio and the market capitalization concept. Finally, the valuation is used along with other arguments to suggest that the company is worth acquiring. This is further displayed by indicating the different advantages and the disadvantages that the merger/acquisition can bring. Both the advantages and the disadvantages are weighed before the final decision is given. Company Background and Overview Lindt and Sprungli is a group of confectionary company which is globally known for its high quality chocolate production. The company’s head quarter is based in Kilchberg, Switzerland. Lindt and Sprungli, more commonly known as Lindt is considered to be a global market leader with respect to the production of chocolates, its products are highly appreciated by people around the globe. The main markets that Lindt focuses on are highlighted below with respect to their Sales North America (28.3%) Germany (17.5%) Switzerland (12.7%) France (12.5%) Italy (11.5%) Great Britain (5%) Lindt’s success has been attributed to its long term strategy. The company’s focus and its main strategy revolves around its seven pillars; brand management, premium positioning, better bondage with customers, Innovation, marketing expertise, understandability of products and the company’s hunger for expansion. All these seven pillars are deemed to be the Critical Success Factors for t he company and it is because of these long term strategies that the company gave an outstanding performance during an era of economic downturn (Lindt and Sprungli, 2010). â€Å"Zetar is a leading manufacturer of confectionery and natural snacks with a reputation for quality and product innovation† (Zetar Plc, 2011). Zetar plc is known for its good quality chocolate within the United Kingdom. The company’s main target markets are the children and for that reason they produce chocolates which appeal to children mostly. The company was incorporated on 8 December 2004 but its main business started in the year 2005. Zetar plc comprises of two groups, Confectionary Division and the Natural snack division. The confectionary division covers the production of chocolate which is later sold within the UK and other export markets such as Australia, China and Ireland. The natural snack division, on the other hand, manufactures and processes a wide range of nuts and dried fruits whi ch are later sold within the UK market only. The natural snack division’s only market is deemed to be the UK market only. Zetar plc has developed a strong relationship with all the UK food retailers and it can be said that the company